American Toad Anaxyrus americanus americanus (Holbrook, 1836)    Synonyms: Bufo americanus, Eastern American Toad.
Kingdom Animalia   >   Phylum Chordata   >   Class Amphibia   >   Order Anura   >   Family Bufonidae   >   Genus Anaxyrus   

Status:

Eastern American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus americanus) is the most widely-distributed toad species in eastern North America. This toad will breed in nearly any shallow pool of water, from pond and lakes, to marshes, to slow sections of rivers, and even in ditches or tire ruts. The call is a distinctive, musical trill, usually longer and more melodic than Fowler's. This toad may be found almost anywhere away from the breeding season, including in suburban yards. This species, like most toads, is a generalist predator of insects and other invertebrates (Conant & Collins, 1998; Maryland DNR site).

Description:

American Toad may be distinguished from Fowler's Toad by counting the number of wart-like tubercles inside the largest dark spots. American has only 1-2, while Fowler's shows 3 or more. Additionally, American Toad shows pigmentation across the chest, while Fowler's is typically unmarked. The tibia of American shows enlarged warts, while Fowler's does not. Finally, the parotoid gland of American is separated from the cranial crest, or connected narrowly by a spur, while it is in broad contact on Fowler's.

There are 2,016 records in the project database.

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American Toad in Montgomery Co., Maryland (4/13/2022). (c) Stephen John Davies, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). - Stephen John Davies via iNaturalist.

American Toad in Montgomery Co., Maryland (3/26/2021). (c) Bernard Foy, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). - Bernard Foy via iNaturalist.

American Toad in Baltimore Co., Maryland (4/24/2020). (c) laurabankey, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). - laurabankey via iNaturalist.

American Toads and Spring Peepers in Baltimore Co., Maryland (3/14/2012). (c) Bill Hubick, all rights reserved. - Bill Hubick.

American Toad in Allegany Co., Maryland (4/21/2023). (c) smuller, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). - Sue Muller.

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An American Toad found in Frederick Co., Maryland (3/15/2009). Photo by Jim Brighton. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Garrett Co., Maryland (7/27/2018). Photo by Ben Springer. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Harford Co., Maryland (4/2/2016). Photo by Mark Johnson. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Cecil Co., Maryland (1/26/2018). Photo by Josh Emm. (MBP list)

American Toads in Carroll Co., Maryland (4/6/2019). Photo by Emilio Concari. (MBP list)

American Toad in Howard Co., Maryland (10/8/2015). (c) treichard, all rights reserved. Photo by Timothy Reichard. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (5/26/2013). Photo by Rod Burley. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Prince George's Co., Maryland (4/21/2017). Photo by Matthew Beziat. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Harford Co., Maryland (3/30/2019). Photo by Mark Johnson. (MBP list)

American Toad in Montgomery Co., Maryland (7/21/2020). (c) Stephen John Davies, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Stephen John Davies via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

American Toad in Montgomery Co., Maryland (3/18/2021). (c) Stephen John Davies, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Stephen John Davies via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

American Toad in Carroll Co., Maryland (5/27/2020). (c) emilio c, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Emilio Concari. (MBP list)

A mating pair of American Toads in Harford Co., Maryland (3/20/2012). Photo by Mark Johnson. (MBP list)

American Toad in Montgomery Co., Maryland (3/18/2021). (c) Stephen John Davies, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Stephen John Davies via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Carroll Co., Maryland (6/27/2018). Photo by Jeff Ripps. (MBP list)

American Toad in Carroll Co., Maryland (7/28/2020). (c) Emilio Concari, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Emilio Concari. (MBP list)

Mating American Toads in Baltimore Co., Maryland (3/1/2017). Photo by Emily Stanley. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Prince George's Co., Maryland (7/2/2015). Photo by Justin Lee. (MBP list)

A young American Toad in Carroll Co., Maryland (6/20/2019). Photo by Emilio Concari. (MBP list)

American Toads mating in Baltimore Co., Maryland (4/12/2008). (c) Frode Jacobsen, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Frode Jacobsen. (MBP list)

American Toads mating in Carroll Co., Maryland (4/10/2013). (c) Frode Jacobsen, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Frode Jacobsen. (MBP list)

American Toad in Maryland (Date obscured). (c) rdunlin, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Ryan Douglas. (MBP list)

American Toads mating, surrounded by masses of eggs, in Montgomery Co., Maryland (3/22/2020). No rights reserved. Photo by Andrew Lih via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

American Toad in Montgomery Co., Maryland (4/7/2019). (c) wimper, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by wimper via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

American Toad tadpoles in Harford Co., Maryland (4/14/2019). Photo by Mark Johnson. (MBP list)

American Toad in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (3/14/2012). Photo by Bill Harms. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Howard Co., Maryland (6/27/2013). Photo by Bill Harms. (MBP list)

American Toad with katydid prey in Garrett Co., Maryland (7/30/2005). (c) Bill Hubick, all rights reserved. Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

American Toad with katydid prey in Garrett Co., Maryland (7/30/2005). (c) Bill Hubick, all rights reserved. Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

American Toad with katydid prey in Garrett Co., Maryland (7/30/2005). (c) Bill Hubick, all rights reserved. Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

American Toads mating in Baltimore Co., Maryland (3/29/2017). Photo by Martha Johnston. (MBP list)

American Toads in Montgomery Co., Maryland (4/14/2018). Photo by Wendy R. Fredericks. (MBP list)

An albino American Toad in Baltimore Co., Maryland (4/14/2022). (c) echapl2, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by echapl2 via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

An American Toad in Baltimore Co., Maryland (4/23/2017). Photo by Matthew Beziat. (MBP list)


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