Eastern Spadefoot Scaphiopus holbrookii (Harlan, 1835)    
Kingdom Animalia   >   Phylum Chordata   >   Class Amphibia   >   Order Anura   >   Family Scaphiopodidae   >   Genus Scaphiopus   

Status:

Eastern Spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrookii) is the only spadefoot species found in Maryland (and anywhere east of the Mississippi). While often called "spadefoot toads," spadefoots (family Scaphiopodidae) are actually not closely related to the true toads of the family Bufonidae. They are strangely-shaped, with an elongated spade-shaped structure on the hind foot, large eyes with vertical pupils, and no parotoid glands. This species is highly fossorial (active primarily underground), and outside of the breeding season, they are usually seldom encountered. Spadefoots are associated with loose, sandy soil, which is easy to burrow into, and as a result, they are most common on the coastal plain. After heavy rains in spring or summer, spadefoots emerge from underground and migrate to breeding sites in shallow wetlands and pools. The entire breeding cycle may occur on only a few nights a year at a given locality (Conant & Collins, 1998; Maryland DNR site; Virginia Herpetological Society site).

There are 182 records in the project database.

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Eastern Spadefoots in Caroline Co., Maryland (5/19/2018). - Mark Schilling.

Eastern Spadefoot in Charles Co., Maryland (6/11/2021). (c) Tim Emhoff, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). - Tim Emhoff via iNaturalist.

Eastern Spadefoot calling in Talbot Co., Maryland (4/29/2023). - Mark Schilling.

Eastern Spadefoot in Kent Co., Maryland (Date obscured). (c) Cole Tiemann, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). - Cole Tiemann via iNaturalist.

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Eastern Spadefoot, Dorchester County, MD, 5/16/2007 Photo by Jim Brighton. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot in Queen Anne's Co., Maryland (7/1/2016). Photo by Dan Small. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot in Caroline Co., Maryland (4/27/2019). Photo by S. Leigh. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot in St. Mary's Co., Maryland (10/27/2018). Photo by Ben Springer. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Prince George's Co., Maryland (Date obscured). (c) Justin Lee, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Justin Lee via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Queen Anne's Co., Maryland (5/27/2007). (c) Bill Hubick, all rights reserved. Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Queen Anne's Co., Maryland (5/27/2007). (c) Bill Hubick, all rights reserved. Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Charles Co., Maryland (7/26/2023). (c) Michael J. W. Carr, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Michael J. W. Carr via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Queen Anne's Co., Maryland (4/6/2022). (c) Jonathan Irons, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Jonathan Irons. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot in Pasadena, Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (9/5/2014). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot in Dorchester Co., Maryland (9/12/2015). Photo by Rick Borchelt. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot in Dorchester Co., Maryland (9/12/2015). Photo by Rick Borchelt. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Maryland (Date obscured). (c) arapp5, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by arapp5 via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (10/16/2022). (c) Jim, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Jim via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (9/16/2012). Photo by Mark Johnson. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Queen Anne's Co., Maryland (4/6/2022). (c) Jonathan Irons, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Jonathan Irons. (MBP list)

An Eastern Spadefoot from a local population in northern Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (4/20/2013). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

An young Eastern Spadefoot in Worcester Co., Maryland (6/24/2013). Photo by Scott Housten. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot mating in Charles Co., Maryland (4/30/2014). Photo by George Jett. (MBP list)

An emerging Eastern Spadefoot in southern Anne Arundel Co. (6/29/2008). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)(More of this species)

An Eastern Spadefoot in Caroline Co., Maryland (8/1/2013). Photo by Mark Johnson. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot in Kent Co., Maryland (Date obscured). (c) Cole Tiemann, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Cole Tiemann via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

An emerging Eastern Spadefoot in southern Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (6/29/2008). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)(More of this species)

A metamorph Eastern Spadefoot in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (8/6/2013). Photo by Robert Aguilar, SERC. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot egg mass in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (4/7/2024). (c) Gabriel Diggs, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by gabriel819 via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot eggs in Kent Co., Maryland (Date obscured). (c) Cole Tiemann, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC). Photo by Cole Tiemann via iNaturalist. (MBP list)

Eastern Spadefoot (close-up of namesake spade) in Queen Anne's Co., Maryland (5/27/2007). (c) Bill Hubick, all rights reserved. Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)


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