Pipevine Swallowtail Battus philenor (Linnaeus, 1771)  Synonyms: Hodges #4157.

Status:

Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor) is the northernmost representative of a primarily neotropical genus of swallowtails. Due to the larval food preferences, adults of this distinctively-marked butterfly taste bad, and are generally avoided by predators. This species is the model for a Batesian mimicry complex of several species of nontoxic butterflies that resemble it, including the Spicebush Swallowtail (Papilio troilus), female Black Swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes), the black morph female of Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus), and the Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax). They receive a degree of protection from predators as a result of their resemblance (Brock & Kaufman, 2003).

This species has several broods, from late April to early May, late June and July, and early September (Butterflies of Maryland: A Biological Summary and Checklist by Lynn Davidson & Richard Smith). Pipevine Swallowtail is more common in the far western counties where the host plants are more prevalent. Very rare on the Eastern Shore.

Relationships:

Host plants include Pipevine (Isotrema macrophyllum) and Virginia Snakeroot (Endodeca serpentaria).

There are 220 records in the project database.

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A male Pipevine Swallowtail - uncommon locally - at Downs Park, Maryland (5/18/2012). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail on Common Milkweed in western Garrett Co., Maryland (7/31/2005). Host plant is, of course, Pipevine. Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list) (More of this species)

A Pipevine Swallowtail in Allegany Co., Maryland (7/6/2019). Photo by Jim Moore. (MBP list)

A male Pipevine Swallowtail in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (9/8/2017). Photo by Dan Haas. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail in Howard Co., Maryland (8/20/2017). Photo by Karen Heffernan. (MBP list)

Pipevine Swallowtails in Allegany Co., Maryland (7/7/2013). Photo by Annette Allor. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail in Charles Co., Maryland (8/22/2015). Photo by Jim Stasz. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail in Allegany Co., Maryland (7/7/2013). Photo by Annette Allor. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail on Common Milkweed in Allegany Co., Maryland (7/10/2015). Photo by Sarah Milbourne. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillar in Montgomery Co., Maryland (8/5/2019). Verified by Ken Allison/BugGuide. Photo by Steve Scholnick. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillar in Garrett Co., Maryland (8/31/2019). Photo by Bob Cammarata. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillar in Queen Anne's Co., Maryland (8/18/2017). Verified by Kyhl Austin/BugGuide. Photo by Lori Byrne. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillar in Montgomery Co., Maryland (7/24/2014). Photo by Fritz Flohr Reynolds. (MBP list)

Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillars in Kent Co., Maryland (7/24/2015). Photo by Barbara Ellis. (MBP list)

A Pipevine Swallowtail pupa in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (9/2/2018). Photo by Matthew Beziat. (MBP list)


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