Eastern Hemlock Tsuga canadensis (Linnaeus) Carriere    
Kingdom Plantae   >   Division Coniferophyta   >   Class Pinopsida   >   Order Pinales   >   Family Pinaceae   >   Genus Tsuga   

Status:

Highly shade tolerant and fire intolerant.

Description:

Seed-bearing cones brown, small, the individual scales roundish.

Where to find:

Grows in moist soil. Common in narrow, shaded valleys, mostly in the mountain zone. A stand of unusually large trees grows in Swallow Falls State Park, on the Youghiogheny River in Garrett County (Brown and Brown, 1972). A number of these trees have been treated for the hemlock woolly adelgid, which has been killing hemlocks throughout their range. (For details on treatment, see the Maryland Department of Agriculture Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Management Plan, online.)

Relationships:

Highly threatened by the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. A variety of moth species use Eastern Hemlock as a host plant including Comstock's Sallow Moth, Northern Pine Tussock Moth, Larch Tolype, Northern Variable Dart, Gray Spruce Looper Moth, Black Zigzag Moth, Pale-winged Gray Moth, White Triangle Tortrix Moth, and Angle-winged Emerald.

Deer browse the twigs. Red Squirrels and a few songbirds eat the seeds and Ruffed Grouse eat the buds and leaves (Brown and Brown, 1972).

There are 131 records in the project database.

View species at Maryland Plant Atlas

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Eastern Hemlock in Garrett Co., Maryland (6/2008). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock in Anne Arundel Co., Maryland (3/4/2011). Photo by Bill Harms. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock in Garrett Co., Maryland (8/28/2016). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

An Eastern Hemlock, with its typically small cones, in Canaan Valley, Tucker Co., West Virginia (7/9/2012). Photo by Jim Brighton. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock in Baltimore Co., Maryland (3/19/2017). Photo by Bill Harms. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock in Allegany Co., Maryland (6/26/2015). Photo by Bill Hubick. (MBP list)

An Eastern Hemlock in Garrett Co., Maryland (1/10/2020). Photo by William Blauvelt. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock in Howard Co., Maryland (12/19/2018). Photo by Matthew Beziat. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock in Garrett Co., Maryland (6/8/2014). Photo by Kimberly Booth. (MBP list)

The trunk of an Eastern Hemlock in Garrett Co., Maryland (10/3/2018). Photo by Josh Emm. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock in Howard Co., Maryland (3/19/2017). Photo by Bill Harms. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock habitat in Garrett Co., Maryland (5/18/2019). Photo by Jim Brighton. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlock hosting Hemlock Woolly Adelgids in Harford Co., Maryland (4/29/2018). Photo by Josh Emm. (MBP list)

Eastern Hemlocks in Garrett Co., Maryland (4/19/2014). Trees with silver tags have been treated by Maryland Conservation Corps for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Photo by Matt Tillett. (MBP list)


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